Connecting from UNIX-like environment (Linux, Mac OS X, Cygwin/MingW)¶
This short tutorial describes how to connect to a CÉCI cluster from a terminal application, such as XTerm, Gnome Terminal, Konsole, iTerm, Linux running on Windows Subsytem For Linux, etc.
Choose your favorite terminal application to follow the steps below.
We will use
my-ceci-cluster.example.com as a generic dummy address
throughout the guide. When trying to follow the steps on your machine
replace that by a real remote host of the CÉCI cluster you wish to use:
- hmem (UCL):
- Lemaitre3 (UCL):
- NIC4 (ULiège) :
- Hercules (UNamur):
- Dragon1 (UMons):
- Vega (ULB):
To decide which cluster is better suited for your kind of jobs, please check the details about them in the CÉCI clusters page.
Please note that since the moment you got the email confirming your account is active, you might need to wait up to ~20 minutes maximum until the access is enabled in all the clusters.
1. SSH connection using the CÉCI key¶
Once you have received your private key by email, store it in a safe location. The most rational place to store it is in your
.sshfolder in your home directory, along with other SSH keys you may have. In case the file was downloaded in the
Downloadsfolder in your home, move it with the command:
mv ~/Downloads/id_rsa.ceci ~/.ssh
Change the permissions of the file so that only you can read it:
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci
If you don’t do this your SSH client will refuse to use the key giving an error which mentions
Permisions 0644 for... are too open.
Connect to the cluster you chose with the
ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci firstname.lastname@example.org
Make sure to replace
myloginwith your actual login you chose when filling the account request form. You are then asked to type in your passphrase (the one you also chose in the account creation request form).
Upon your very first connection to a CÉCI cluster, you will be greeted by a warning such as:
The authenticity of host 'my-ceci-cluster.example.com (XXX.XXX.XX.XX)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:aqUPC4C8gkBjgCUMpHt3kzpciSkQcKR2gNOahnbZN3c. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'ceci-cluster.ac.be,XXX.XXX.XX.XX' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
This warning is normal, the SSH program warns that it is the first time it sees this computer. To make sure you are actually connecting to the right machine, you should compare the RSA key fingerprint shown in the message with the fingerprint announced on the Access section of the CÉCI cluster page. The fingerprint can be based on hash function MD5 or SHA-256.
If they match, you are safe to proceed and enter yes. That hostname key will be stored and used to check in every subsquent SSH connection that the server is indeed always the same.
If everything worked properly, you should be greeted by a message similar to:
Last login: Fri Sep 21 12:04:25 2015 from 184.108.40.206 Welcome to ____ _____ _____ ______ _ _ |_ \|_ _||_ _|.' ___ || | | | | \ | | | | / .' \_|| |__| |_ | |\ \| | | | | | |____ _| _| |_\ |_ _| |_\ `.___.'\ _| |_ |_____|\____||_____|`.____ .' |_____| ULg/CECI Infiniband cluster 128 nodes: 2 x 8-cores E5-2650 @ 2GHz, 64 GB RAM, QDR Infiniband Contact, support: email@example.com , http://www.ulg.ac.be/nic4 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CÉCI clusters: Hmem - Lemaitre2 - Dragon1 - Hercules - Vega - NIC4 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 275/1920 CPUs available (load 85%) - 72 jobs running, 107 pending. You currently have 0 job running, 0 pending. You are using 15GB ( out of 25GB ) in /home/ulg/ace/alozano You are using 114GB ( out of 210GB ) in /CECI//home/ulg/ace/alozano Don't know where to start? --> http://www.ceci-hpc.be/install_software.html --> http://www.ceci-hpc.be/slurm_tutorial.html
If you see something like that, you are already connected to the cluster you chose. Please see the following 2. and 3. sections to see how you can ease the connections to the clusters.
2. Create a ssh_config file¶
You can dramatically shorten the length of the command line used to connect to
the clusters by setting your ssh configuration file properly.
Assuming your login is
mylogin and you are working with the
cluster, add the following to your configuration file
it if it does not exist):
Host clustername HostName my-ceci-cluster.example.com User mylogin ForwardX11 yes ForwardAgent yes IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci
From now on, you will be able to connect to the cluster simply by issuing the following command:
FowardX11 option is needed to open any host program in the client
ForwardAgent option is useful if you have an SSH agent running (in the
following section it is explained how to setup one), it will forward a
connection to your agent on the remote side. Note that, as explained in the SSH
manpage, agent forwarding should be enabled only for trusted remote hosts.
It is perfectly safe to use it for the CÉCI clusters, but be cautious with
You can do the same for each cluster you will connect to. Type
ssh_config for a detailed list of options you can set in your configuration
A ssh_config wizard is available to generate this config file for all the CÉCI clusters.
3. Using an SSH agent to avoid typing the passphrase at each login¶
You can further ease the process by using an SSH agent which will remember the passphrase so you do not have to type it each time you issue the SSH command. In any modern Mac OS or Linux distribution is quite certain that you have an agent already running, if the command:
The agent has no identities or a line like
2048 SHA256:1S30t9SSWSd2PIF0QVAPj1Xhtnj2UYqPw32ZIAu0MkI ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci (RSA)
you don’t have anything else to do, your agent is running. Please, check the notes at the bottom of this section if you are still being requested the passphrase at each cluster login.
If the command responds
Could not open a connection to your authentication
agent, you can start an agent with:
Then, load the CÉCI key with the command:
you’ll be prompted once for your passphrase. From now on, in the current terminal, all ssh commands will be handled by the agent and you won’t have to type your passphrase again.
With the agent running, you can use the
-A option of
ssh to forward
your agent from one computer to another (you don’t need this if you are using
ForwardAgent option in a
.ssh/config as explained in the section
above). This allows you to connect, or copy files, from one cluster to another
Some software, such as Gnome Keyring, require the public key to be also
present in the
.ssh directory to enable the login without retyping
passphrases. You can generate the public SSH key from the private key (the
one you received from the CÉCI by email) with the following command:
ssh-keygen -yf ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci > ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci.pub
In Mac OS, after Sierra update 10.12.2, in order to automatically unlock
your keys these extra options are required on top of your
Host * AddKeysToAgent yes UseKeychain yes
4. Connecting to the cluster from outside the universities network¶
As the clusters are not accessible from outside the university networks, you will need to either use a VPN or an SSH gateway. Going through an SSH gateway can be entirely transparent provided your client is correctly configured. The CÉCI does not offer a gateway service so you need to refer to your local support team for more information:
- UCL: you can use
gwceci.cism.ucl.ac.beas SSH gateway using a CECI account. See the CISM documentation.
- ULB: you can use
hydraas SSH gateway. See the hydra documentation.
- UMons: contact the local support team to learn how to setup the VPN.
- UNamur: you can use
hal.unamur.beusing your UNamur identity or use the VPN (see UNamur intranet)
- ULiège: you need to use the VPN service.
Note that you can use any Linux computer that is connected to your university network to which you have SSH access from your home or abroad to act as gateway.
4.1 Using a VPN¶
If you can setup a VPN on your machine no extra step is required. When enabling
the VPN, you should be able to connect with the same
ssh command as if you
were inside the university network.
4.2 Using a ssh gateway¶
To use a gateway you need to do a proxy connection with ssh’s ProxyCommand option:
ssh -o 'ProxyCommand ssh firstname.lastname@example.org -W %h:%p' myCECIlogin@my-ceci-cluster.example.com
email@example.com by your university login name and gateway,
myCECIlogin by your CÉCI login and
my-ceci-cluster.example.com by any CÉCI cluster
you want to connect.
You can add a shortcut in your configuration file ~/.ssh/config:
Host gwceci HostName gateway.ac.be User mylogin1 ForwardX11 yes ForwardAgent yes Host clustername_via_proxy HostName my-ceci-cluster.example.com User myCECIlogin ForwardX11 yes ForwardAgent yes IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci ProxyCommand ssh gwceci -W %h:%p 2> /dev/null
To connect just type:
It is important to note that you do not need to be outside the university network to test the SSH gateways. Going through a gateway works as well from within than from outside the university network. So be sure to test everything before you leave.
Step 1. Make sure that your key file has the correct permissions:
ls -l ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci
should output something that starts with
Step 2. Make sure your key and your passphrase match by issuing the following command:
ssh-keygen -yf ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci
If the output is ‘load failed’ you either have a wrong passphrase or your key file has been corrupted.
Step 3. Make sure you are connected to your university network: the following command
curl -I -k https://login.ceci-hpc.be/init/
should return something starting with
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Status: 200 OK
Step 4. Make sure the ssh client is asking for a passphrase and not a password. Otherwise, it means you are not correctly instructing your ssh client to use the private key.
Run the ssh command with the
-v option. You should find a line
debug1: Offering RSA public key: .ssh/id_rsa.ceci
The line immediately following that one should be something like:
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 277
otherwise it means the key your are using does not correspond to the one stored on the cluster. If this happens while you just updated or renewed your account, it may indicate that your new key is not fully propagated yet. Try again later.
Frequently encountered problems¶
Here are some frequent errors you should avoid.
The permissions on your key file are not correct¶
If, after running
ssh clustername, for instance, you see something like:
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Permissions 0644 for '/home/dfr/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci' are too open. It is recommended that your private key files are NOT accessible by others. This private key will be ignored. bad permissions: ignore key: /home/dfr/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci firstname.lastname@example.org's password:
it means that Permissions 0644 for the
are too open. Change them to 600 as explained in the first section of this
You did not specify the correct path to your SSH private key¶
If, after running ssh, you are being asked for a password directly,
$ ssh clustername email@example.com's password:
it means that your SSH client did not try to use the SSH key. Make sure
you either used the
-i option or that your
~/.ssh/config file is
properly configured and contains no typos.
You used a wrong username or tried to connect before your keys are synchronised¶
If, after running ssh, you are being asked for a passphrase, then a password,
$ ssh clustername Enter passphrase for key '/home/dfr/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci': firstname.lastname@example.org's password:
it often means that the user name you are using is not the correct one.
If you just requested or renewed your account, it could also mean that you are using the new private key while it has not been synchronized to that cluster yet (keep in mind that the clusters are not synchronized simultaneously). Wait about 15 minutes and try again.
You have too many SSH keys lying around¶
If the server responds with
$ ssh clustername Received disconnect from host: 2: Too many authentication failures for dfr
that means that your client offered the server too many keys to try and access
it. To make sure the client uses only the correct key (i.e. the one
specified by the
IdentityFile option,) you will need to add
IdentitiesOnly yes at the top of your
~/.ssh/config file, or pass it as
$ ssh -o 'IdentitiesOnly yes' clustername
Note that for the SSH-agent to continue working properly when this option is added, you will need the public SSH key to be present in the
You can generate the public SSH key from the private key (the one you received from the CÉCI with the following command:
ssh-keygen -yf ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci > ~/.ssh/id_rsa.ceci.pub